Antioxidants; Chronic diseases; Oxidative stress; Vitamins, Antioxidants articles, Chronic diseases articles, Oxidative stress articles, Vitamins articles. Vitamin C is the major antioxidant present in the surface of the lung, suggesting a protective antioxidant role. The isoprostanes: Novel prostaglandin-like products of the free radical catalysed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. It is also involved in the maturation of white blood cells, which is a frontline player in immunity responses [26]. Kono K, Fujii H, Nakai K, et al. Calcitriol is essential for the maintenance of healthy calcium homeostasis [25]. Am J Nephrol 37 (2013): 167-174. J Food Sci Tech Mys 4 (2003): 409-412. Dietary sources of vitamin E includes Sunflower seeds, spinach, turnip greens, asparagus, beet  greens,  mustard  greens, chili peppers, almonds, broccoli, bell peppers, kale, tomatoes, avocado, peanut, shrimp, olives, olive oil, collard greens, cranberries, raspberries, kiwifruit, carrots, and green beans [23]. Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting activity [31, 32], helps in the maintenance of bone health by keeping demineralisation under control [32, 33]. An improved antioxidant potential in the body can reduce oxidative stress and prevent or improve disease conditions. High dose of ascorbic acid induces cell death in mesothelioma cells. Front Cell Dev Biol 4 (2016): 16. Effect of nicotinamide mononucleotide on brain mitochondrial respiratory deficits in an Alzheimer's disease-relevant murine model. Compared to conventionally grown fruits and vegetables, those grown with organic farming methods contain significantly higher amounts of vitamins and minerals. They attain stability by acquiring electrons from nearby molecules in the body, causing a cascade of reactions resulting in cellular damage and diseases [9, 10]. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24 (2004): 816-823. Influence of all-trans retinoic acid on sperm metabolism and oxidative stress: Its involvement in the physiopathology of varicocele-associated male infertility. nutrients that are considered to be antioxidants: Gabe was reading an article in a muscle magazine that said a particular world-champion body builder regularly eats a dozen raw egg whites per day. The evidence in the literature implies a significant antioxidant role of Vitamin D3 in mature erythrocytes without a nucleus, this result not only verify that cholecalciferol has an antioxidant effect [66], but also suggest that 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol could be like a direct antioxidant of the membrane, via stabilizing and protecting the membrane from lipid peroxidation through the relationship with their hydrophobic parts [60]. all of the statements that apply to world hunger: -Almost all of those who suffer from food insecurity, hunger, or malnutrition are poor. They are also enriched with one mineral - iron.`. Furthermore, Vitamin D supplementation has been suggested to provide significant protection against oxidative stress-mediated vascular complications in diabetes [63]. Ibrahim KS, El-Sayed EM. Salum E, Kale J, Kampus P, et al. They are essential for vision, cell growth and development, antioxidant activity, and promotion of proper cell communication [23]. Wolden-Kirk H, Gysemans C, Verstuyf A, et al. It also triggers glutathione production in the cells that help in increasing antioxidant activity. Does vitamin C act as pro-oxidant under physiological conditions? Yaribeygi H, Farrokhi FR, Rezaee R, et al. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid-induced superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase activities, while it decreased malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in both healthy and varicocele sperm, which suggests that retinol enhances antioxidant enzyme activity [59]. Fertility and Sterility 79 (2003): 1288-1293. Synthesised from K1 is the K2 type. There are lots and lots of different substances that can behave as antioxidants, vitamins being one of them. Heitzer T, Schlinzig T, Krohn K, et al. ATBC was designed to test the belief that antioxidants would protect men from lung cancer. Higashi-Okai K, Nagino H, Yamada K, et al. But the role of higher-dose vitamin supplements is less established, particularly in preventing heart disease. 4.6.1 Vitamin B2 and oxidative stress: Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) is vital for the metabolism of nutrients and antioxidant protection [83]. Oxidative stress is a condition characterised by a high rate of reactive oxygen species or reduced capacity to neutralise them. Homocysteine is readily oxidised to hydrogen peroxide, thereby increasing reactive oxygen species in the body [104, 105]. α-Tocopherol supplementation and the oxidative stress, homocysteine, and antioxidants in lead exposure, Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health (2016). Distribution of tocopherols in human plasma and red blood cells. Citation: Olorunnisola Olubukola Sinbad, Ajayi Ayodeji Folorunsho, Okeleji Lateef Olabisi, Oladipo Abimbola Ayoola, Emorioloye Johnson Temitope. Wang G, Li W, Lu X, et al. Young IS, Woodside JV. eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fermented animal foods, and fermented plant foods, spinach, mustard greens, beet greens, Swiss chard, turnip greens, parsley, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, romaine lettuce, asparagus, basil, cabbage, celery, kiwifruit, green beans, cucumber, tomatoes, black pepper, green peas, blueberries, carrots, soybeans, avocado, raspberries, winter squash, pear, cranberries, bell peppers, plum, cantaloupe and eggplant [30]. Marshall CW. Maqbool MA, Aslam M, Akbar W, et al. Many studies have reported a decrease in endogenous antioxidants in many disease conditions. He is short for his age and his teacher has recently noticed that Jacob is falling asleep during class and seems unable to concentrate on his tasks. Why are older people at increased risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency compared to younger people? IUBMB Life 71 (2019): 430-441. hydroxyl, superoxide, and oxygen radical showed that pyridoxine reacts more strongly with hydroxyl radicals through binding with pyridoxine aromatic ring or the abstraction of hydrogen from the groups attached to the ring [99]. Exp Eye Res 53 (1991): 123-130. Vitamin B12 is essential for erythrocyte maturation during the production of red blood cells, and it is necessary for the maintenance of cardiovascular health of human by preventing an increase in the level of homocysteine. Microorganisms like bacteria and fungi synthesise vitamin B12, and it is difficult to absorb. Vitamin C, in combination with L-carnitine, was reported to improve cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory property [79]. Ebadi M. Antioxidant and free radicals in health and disease. A healthy diet with plenty of _____ may reduce lead absorption in children. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 28 (1999): 370-371. Generally, classification of Vitamins is into two groups: Example of water-soluble vitamins is: Vitamins B complex and C and that of fat-soluble vitamins include: A, D, E, and K. Fat-soluble vitamins are associated with fats and are absorbed with dietary fats. E event leads to the accumulation of peroxides and free radicals that can damage different components of the cell, including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and other molecules [9, 11]. Akoglu B, Faust D, Milovic V, et al. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention trial (ATBC) was one of the first investigations to cast doubt on the value of antioxidants. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research, Olorunnisola Olubukola Sinbad1, Ajayi Ayodeji Folorunsho2*, Okeleji Lateef Olabisi3, Oladipo Abimbola Ayoola2, Emorioloye Johnson Temitope2, 1Biochemistry Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, 2Physiology Department, Ladoke Akintola, University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, 3Physiology Department, Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria, *Corresponding Author: Ajayi Ayodeji Folorunsho, Physiology Department, Ladoke Akintola, University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, Received: 12 August 2019; Accepted: 26 August 2019; Published: 30 August 2019. Last summer, Loraine's garden yielded more food than her family could eat. Biochemical Pharmacology 54 (1997): 871-876. Megaloblastic anaemia and neutrophil hypersegmentation. Similar results occurred in cell-free systems and neuronal cells. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 98 (2012): 40-42. Scientific Reports 5 (2015): 13896. Antioxidants are produced in the body (endogenous) or acquired from the diet (exogenous). Am J Clin Nutr 28 (1975): 756-760. Free radicals attack essential macromolecules leading to cell damage and homeostatic disruption. British Journal of Nutrition 111 (2014): 1985-1991. Levin G, Cogan U, Levy Y, et al. Chemico-Biological Interactions (2004). Ascorbate also prevents the formation of nitrosamine, which produces reactive nitrogen species [78]. They are essential for vision, cell growth and development, antioxidant activity and promotion of proper cell communication [23]. Eur J Biochem 267 (2000): 4912-4916. Enzymatic reactions serve as a source of free radicals, include those involved in the respiratory chain, phagocytosis, prostaglandin synthesis, and the cytochrome P-450 system [55]. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases. 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