Fugues were most popular during the Baroque Period, ca. Bach's Fugue No. 120. Bach's work. “Fugue.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fugue. [16][17] To make the music run smoothly, it may also have to be altered slightly. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Like those great models, this one is an anti-scholastic fugue. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians/Augmentation. The second movement of a sonata da chiesa, as written by Arcangelo Corelli and others, was usually fugal. False entries are often abbreviated to the head of the subject, and anticipate the "true" entry of the subject, heightening the impact of the subject proper. fugue; Ger. Often the contrapuntal writing is not strict, and the setting less formal. Stravinsky recognized the compositional techniques of Bach, and in the second movement of his Symphony of Psalms (1930), he lays out a fugue that is much like that of the Baroque era. Later in life, the major impetus to fugal writing for Mozart was the influence of Baron Gottfried van Swieten in Vienna around 1782. In the fugues of J.S. Sometimes the answer to the subject of a fugue is introduced by inversion—as in Nos. Slippery Words Quiz—Changing with the Times. 101. fugue (plural fugues) 1. [49] Mozart studied from this book, and it remained influential into the nineteenth century. [47] This work laid out the terms of "species" of counterpoint, and offered a series of exercises to learn fugue writing. During the Classical era, the fugue was no longer a central or even fully natural mode of musical composition. A fugue, musically, is "a composition, or compositional technique, in which a theme (or themes) is extended and developed mainly by imitative counterpoint" (Grove Concise Dictionary of Music). Mozart was evidently fascinated by these works and wrote a set of transcriptions for string trio of fugues from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, introducing them with preludes of his own. [64] According to Tom Service, in this work, Ligeti, takes the logic of the fugal idea and creates something that’s meticulously built on precise contrapuntal principles of imitation and fugality, but he expands them into a different region of musical experience. 130 (1825); the latter was later published separately as Op. [15] Furthermore, in some fugues the entry of one of the voices may be reserved until later, for example in the pedals of an organ fugue (see J.S. It is a type of counterpoint with a precisely defined structure. The form evolved during the 18th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios, canzonas, and fantasias. Bach's cantata, Himmelskönig, sei willkommen, BWV 182. These included the fugues for String Quartet, K. 405 (1782) and a Fugue in C Minor K. 426 for two pianos (1783). A few examples also exist within progressive rock, such as the central movement of "The Endless Enigma" by Emerson, Lake & Palmer and "On Reflection" by Gentle Giant. [44] Palestrina's imitative motets differed from fugues in that each phrase of the text had a different subject which was introduced and worked out separately, whereas a fugue continued working with the same subject or subjects throughout the entire length of the piece. Instead, I have sheltered behind the form of the Fugue. Fugue - A contrapuntal piece with spaced entries of a theme, usually in three or more parts. A fugue is a piece of music written for a certain number of parts (voices).It is a type of counterpoint with a precisely defined structure. At the micro level of the individual lines, and there are dozens and dozens of them in this music...there’s an astonishing detail and finesse, but the overall macro effect is a huge overwhelming and singular experience. Floros, C. (1997, p. 135) Gustav Mahler: The Symphonies, trans. Imitative counterpoint is when both the lines are using the same theme. [19] The distinction is made between the use of free counterpoint and regular countersubjects accompanying the fugue subject/answer, because in order for a countersubject to be heard accompanying the subject in more than one instance, it must be capable of sounding correctly above or below the subject, and must be conceived, therefore, in invertible (double) counterpoint.[15][20]. [42] Originally, this was to aid improvisation, but by the 1550s, it was considered a technique of composition. The word “fugue“ comes from the Italian “fuga“ meaning “flight“. The later codettas may be considerably longer, and often serve to (a) develop the material heard so far in the subject/answer and countersubject and possibly introduce ideas heard in the second countersubject or free counterpoint that follows (b) delay, and therefore heighten the impact of the reentry of the subject in another voice as well as modulating back to the tonic.[24]. The last movement of his Cello Sonata, Op. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know these earlier meanings of words? [43] The fugue arose from the technique of "imitation", where the same musical material was repeated starting on a different note. There is usually very little non-structural/thematic material. [6][7][8] In this sense, a fugue is a style of composition, rather than a fixed structure. 14 in F♯ minor from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier Book 2, or more famously, Bach's "St. Anne" Fugue in E♭ major, BWV 552, a triple fugue for organ. [9] The famous fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) shaped his own works after those of Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562-1621), Johann Jakob Froberger (1616–1667), Johann Pachelbel (1653–1706), Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583–1643), Dieterich Buxtehude (c. 1637–1707) and others. Psychiatry A dissociative state, usually caused by trauma, marked by sudden travel or wandering away from home and an inability to … Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Johann Jakob Froberger and Dieterich Buxtehude all wrote fugues,[45] and George Frideric Handel included them in many of his oratorios. [22] Each voice then responds with its own subject or answer, and further countersubjects or free counterpoint may be heard. (In other words, the subject and countersubjects must be capable of being played both above and below all the other themes without creating any unacceptable dissonances.) Anything in literature, poetry, film, painting, etc., that resembles a fugue in structure or in its elaborate compl… The use of this format is generally inspired by Johann Sebastian Bach's two books of preludes and fugues — The Well-Tempered … 1 in C major, BWV 846 of the Well-Tempered Clavier) or separated by episodes. Here is the subject I have written for my worked example of a fugue: This whole section of music is called The Exposition. fugue (fyo͞og) [Ital.,=flight], in music, a form of composition in which the basic principle is imitative counterpoint counterpoint, in music, the art of combining melodies each of which is independent though forming part of a homogeneous texture. The young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart studied counterpoint with Padre Martini in Bologna. A daily challenge for crossword fanatics. Dimitri Shostakovich's 24 Preludes and Fugues is the composer's homage to Bach's two volumes of The Well-Tempered Clavier. See more. Joseph Haydn was the leader of fugal composition and technique in the Classical era. [30], Sometimes counter-expositions or the middle entries take place in stretto, whereby one voice responds with the subject/answer before the first voice has completed its entry of the subject/answer, usually increasing the intensity of the music. In Ratz's words, "fugal technique significantly burdens the shaping of musical ideas, and it was given only to the greatest geniuses, such as Bach and Beethoven, to breathe life into such an unwieldy form and make it the bearer of the highest thoughts. Definition of fugue. Learn more. If this new material is reused in later statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject; if this accompanying material is only heard once, it is simply referred to as free counterpoint. Although certain related keys are more commonly explored in fugal development, the overall structure of a fugue does not limit its harmonic structure. A fugue is a piece of music that uses interwoven melodies based on a single musical idea. See more. Under the employment of Archbishop Colloredo, and the musical influence of his predecessors and colleagues such as Johann Ernst Eberlin, Anton Cajetan Adlgasser, Michael Haydn, and his own father, Leopold Mozart at the Salzburg Cathedral, the young Mozart composed ambitious fugues and contrapuntal passages in Catholic choral works such as Mass in C minor, K. 139 "Waisenhaus" (1768), Mass in C major, K. 66 "Dominicus" (1769), Mass in C major, K. 167 "in honorem Sanctissimae Trinitatis" (1773), Mass in C major, K. 262 "Missa longa" (1775), Mass in C major, K. 337 "Solemnis" (1780), various litanies, and vespers. [65], Benjamin Britten used a fugue in the final part of The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946). In some fugues, the exposition will end with a redundant entry, or an extra presentation of the theme. A widespread view of the fugue is that it is not a musical form but rather a technique of composition.[68]. A fugue begins with the exposition and is written according to certain predefined rules; in later portions the composer has more freedom, though a logical key structure is usually followed. Gioseffo Zarlino, a composer, author, and theorist in the Renaissance, was one of the first to distinguish between the two types of imitative counterpoint: fugues and canons (which he called imitations). It is not to be confused with a fuguing tune, which is a style of song popularized by and mostly limited to early American (i.e. The fugue is the most complex of contrapuntal forms. 2 in C minor, BWV 847, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 illustrates the application of most of the characteristics described above. Felix Mendelssohn wrote many fugues inspired by his study of the music of J.S. [9] With the decline of sophisticated styles at the end of the baroque period, the fugue's central role waned, eventually giving way as sonata form and the symphony orchestra rose to a dominant position. Bach's Fugue in B♭ major from Book 1 of the Well Tempered Clavier explores the relative minor, the supertonic and the subdominant. Giuseppe Verdi included a whimsical example at the end of his opera Falstaff and his setting of the Requiem Mass contained two (originally three) choral fugues. Writing in 1555, Nicola Vicentino, for example, suggests that: the composer, having completed the initial imitative entrances, take the passage which has served as accompaniment to the theme and make it the basis for new imitative treatment, so that "he will always have material with which to compose without having to stop and reflect". Canons and Imitations are often constructed in this way. 131 that several commentators regard as one of the composer's greatest achievements. The recapitulation features both fugal subjects concurrently. Some fugues during the Baroque period were pieces designed to teach contrapuntal technique to students. A fugue is a piece of music written for a certain number of parts (voices). Bach's Art of Fugue and the fugue from Beethoven's Opus 106 (the Hammerklavier sonata) have nothing to do with the academic fugue. [7][28] This excerpt opens at last entry of the exposition: the subject is sounding in the bass, the first countersubject in the treble, while the middle-voice is stating a second version of the second countersubject, which concludes with the characteristic rhythm of the subject, and is always used together with the first version of the second countersubject. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? Episodes (if applicable) and entries are usually alternated until the "final entry" of the subject, by which point the music has returned to the opening key, or tonic, which is often followed by closing material, the coda. He begs her not to let anybody see the fugue and manifests the hope to write five more and then present them to Baron van Swieten. What does fugue mean? fugue meaning: 1. a piece of music consisting of three or more tunes played together: 2. a piece of music…. Answers in the subdominant are also employed for the same reason.[18]. What follows is a chart displaying a fairly typical fugal outline, and an explanation of the processes involved in creating this structure. )[34][36], A counter-fugue is a fugue in which the first answer is presented as the subject in inversion (upside down), and the inverted subject continues to feature prominently throughout the fugue. Psychiatry A dissociative state, usually caused by trauma, marked by sudden travel or wandering away from home and an … "Fugue" as a theoretical term first occurred in 1330 when Jacobus of Liege wrote about the fuga in his Speculum musicae. [12] The adjectival form is fugal. Bach's Fugue in C major for Organ, BWV 547). Fugue - Fugue - Varieties of the fugue: Fugues have been composed for every medium and genre, sacred or secular, vocal or instrumental, solo or ensemble. a story that … is as rich and multilayered as a, To him, the ubiquitous paradigms of noun-endings (declensions) and verb-endings (conjugations) possessed all the crystalline beauty of a Bach, Reflexively moderate and deferential to the status quo, Biden as recently as last year expressed the wistful belief that Republican senators had been trapped in a sort of, But when my daughter arrived, my free time evaporated in a manic, Saturated washes whorl into psychedelic compositions, as if seen through a, Flavin Judd, the artist’s son, has compared it to a Bach, Leading an orchestra with considerably more strings than Mozart was accustomed to, Zander gave admirable clarity to the opera buffa, The Difference Between 'Hoard' and 'Horde'. Definition/History A fugue is a highly evolved form of imitative counterpoint. According to Charles Rosen (1971, p. 503) "With the finale of 110, Beethoven re-conceived the significance of the most traditional elements of fugue writing. Fugue, in music, a compositional procedure characterized by the systematic imitation of a principal theme (called the subject) in simultaneously sounding melodic lines (counterpoint). 2. In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject that is introduced at the beginning in imitation and recurs frequently in the course of the composition. [56] J.W.N. When the answer is an exact copy of the subject to the new key, with identical intervals to the first statement, it is classified as a real answer; if the intervals are altered to maintain the key it is a tonal answer. One example of permutation fugue can be seen in the eighth and final chorus of J.S. Permutation fugue describes a type of composition (or technique of composition) in which elements of fugue and strict canon are combined. [15] Episodic material is always modulatory and is usually based upon some element heard in the exposition. Mendelssohn also uses it in his Pianoforte fugues in E minor and B minor, Op. [citation needed] The finale of Mahler's Symphony No. In the first movement of his Fourth Symphony, starting at rehearsal mark 63, is a gigantic fugue in which the 20-bar subject (and tonal answer) consist entirely of semiquavers, played at the speed of quaver=168. A massive, dissonant fugue forms the finale of his String Quartet, Op. It was in the Baroque period that the writing of fugues became central to composition, in part as a demonstration of compositional expertise. The finale of Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata contains a fugue, which was practically unperformed until the late 19th century, due to its tremendous technical difficulty and length. [46] The most influential text was Johann Joseph Fux's Gradus Ad Parnassum ("Steps to Parnassus"), which appeared in 1725. [30] The counter-exposition in a fugue is separated from the exposition by an episode and is in the same key as the original exposition. The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080, is a collection of fugues (and four canons) on a single theme that is gradually transformed as the cycle progresses. This limitation exists in consequence of sheer proportionality: the more voices in a fugue, the greater the number of possible permutations. [51], The second movement of Maurice Ravel's piano suite Le Tombeau de Couperin (1917) is a fugue that Roy Howat (200, p. 88) describes as having "a subtle glint of jazz". In the fugues of earlier composers (notably, Buxtehude and Pachelbel), middle entries in keys other than the tonic and dominant tend to be the exception, and non-modulation the norm. A fugue is a piece of music that begins with a simple tune which is then repeated by other voices or instrumental parts with small variations. The composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525?–1594) wrote masses using modal counterpoint and imitation, and fugal writing became the basis for writing motets as well. A fugue usually has three main sections: an exposition, a development and a final entry that contains the return of the subject in the fugue's tonic key. The Fugue General Lifespan 1540-1850? Fugue - Musical Definition. [42] It was not until the 16th century that fugal technique as it is understood today began to be seen in pieces, both instrumental and vocal. [62] It employs a double fugue with two distinct subjects, the first beginning in C and the second in E♭. Countersubject definition, a theme in a fugue that occurs simultaneously with the second and often the subsequent themes of the main subject. Haydn, for example, taught counterpoint from his own summary of Fux and thought of it as the basis for formal structure. The English term fugue originated in the sixteenth century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga. See for example, variation 24 of Beethoven's Diabelli Variations Op. [21] The countersubject, if sounding at the same time as the answer, is transposed to the pitch of the answer. "[57] Philip Radcliffe (1965, p. 149) says "[a] bare description of its formal outline can give but little idea of the extraordinary profundity of this fugue ."[58]. Further entries of the subject will occur throughout the fugue, repeating the accompanying material at the same time. Similarly, a triple fugue has three subjects. Ligeti doesn’t want us to hear individual entries of the subject or any subject, or to allow us access to the labyrinth through listening in to individual lines… He creates instead a vastly dense texture of voices in his choir and orchestra, a huge stratified slab of terrifying visionary power. [18], The counter-exposition is a second exposition. It is based on a tune called the "subject" of the fugue. There are fugal sections in Beethoven's early piano sonatas, and fugal writing is to be found in the second and fourth movements of the Eroica Symphony (1805). [4] Haydn's most famous fugues can be found in his "Sun" Quartets (op. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). [13] Variants include fughetta (literally, "a small fugue") and fugato (a passage in fugal style within another work that is not a fugue).[6]. The French overture featured a quick fugal section after a slow introduction. [51] Nevertheless, both Haydn and Mozart had periods of their careers in which they in some sense "rediscovered" fugal writing and used it frequently in their work. However, there are only two entries, and the entries occur in reverse order. 6 and 7 of Bach's 'Art of Fugue'—and then the whole fugue is called 'a fugue by inversion.' A fugue starts with the 1st voice/part playing a melody/phrase called the Subject. 1600-1750. Some fugues have a recapitulation. The codetta, just as the other parts of the exposition, can be used throughout the rest of the fugue. Permutation fugues differ from conventional fugue in that there are no connecting episodes, nor statement of the themes in related keys. 1 Music A contrapuntal composition in which a short melody or phrase (the subject) is introduced by one part and successively taken up by others and developed by interweaving the parts. • FUGUE (noun) The noun FUGUE has 3 senses:. Some scholars consider the fugue a technique rather than a type of music, a musical piling on of voices. Rosen, C. (1971) The Classical Style. Further entries of the subject follow this initial exposition, either immediately (as for example in Fugue No. The countersubject is written in invertible counterpoint at the octave or fifteenth. London, Faber. The subject is played by the 1st voice in the tonic key. [11], The English term fugue originated in the 16th century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga. Amadeus Press. probably from Italian fuga flight, fugue, from Latin, flight, from fugere, The word originally referred to the Huguenots. Many composers have written works of this kind. [15] After the statement of the subject, a second voice enters and states the subject with the subject transposed to another key (usually the dominant or subdominant), which is known as the answer. [32] Strettos may also occur by inversion, augmentation and diminution. 88, No. Here each … A fughetta is a short fugue that has the same characteristics as a fugue. Yet this is music that’s made with a fine craft and detail of a Swiss clock maker. Send us feedback. A fugue begins with the exposition of its subject in one of the voices alone in the tonic key. Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. This is often followed by a connecting passage, or episode, developed from previously heard material; further "entries" of the subject then are heard in related keys. The term fugue may also be used to describe a work or part of a work. In a letter to his sister Nannerl Mozart, dated in Vienna on 20 April 1782, Mozart recognizes that he had not written anything in this form, but moved by his wife's interest he composed one piece, which is sent with the letter. Later, Mozart incorporated fugal writing into his opera Die Zauberflöte and the finale of his Symphony No. shape note or "Sacred Harp") music and West Gallery music. During his early career in Vienna, Beethoven attracted notice for his performance of these fugues. 4 (1787). In music, a fugue (/fjuːɡ/) is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition. Dictionary entry overview: What does fugue mean? (music) A contrapuntal piece of music wherein a particular melody is played in a number of voices, each voice introduced in turn by playing the melody. Bach. 102 No. 346–47) regards as "certainly the finest and most characteristic example of Bartók's subtle style... probably the most timeless of all Bartók's works – a fugue that unfolds like a fan to a point of maximum intensity and then closes, returning to the mysterious atmosphere of the opening."[61]. [33], A double fugue has two subjects that are often developed simultaneously. Joseph Kerman (1966, p. 330) calls it "this most moving of all fugues". [73], Contrapuntal musical form based on a subject that recurs in imitation, "Fugue [Fr. For example, a fugue may not even explore the dominant, one of the most closely related keys to the tonic. Middle entries tend to occur at pitches other than the initial. During the course of a permutation fugue, it is quite uncommon, actually, for every single possible voice-combination (or "permutation") of the themes to be heard. fugue - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. In the above example, this is the case: the subject finishes on the quarter note (or crotchet) B♭ of the third beat of the second bar which harmonizes the opening G of the answer. In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and recurs frequently in the course of the composition. Nineteenth century development, the major impetus to fugal writing from childhood, as an important part of a does. To Diminution 1 in C, BuxWV 137 - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums Fugue.. Set to writing fugues on his own, mimicking the Baroque period, ca two volumes of subject! Performance of these fugues. [ 38 ] and forums that Haydn repeated only once later in his sonatas and. Micropolyphony: Ligeti 's Kyrie and the setting less formal fugue has two subjects that are developed! 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