For example, a 12-fold factor was observed between the lowest (HeLa) and the highest values (Saos-2) within the human cells. 4, right, and Table). Mol Cell Biol. The physiological activation of FGF-2 IRES observed in the brain, correlated with the high IRES efficiency in two neuroblastoma cell lines, suggests the existence of a specific CNS internal entry activating factor. The reaction was performed on a Perkin Elmer apparatus, under the following conditions: 94°C for 3 min, then 25 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, 58°C for 45 s, 72°C for 45 s, and finally 72°C for 5 min. Total RNA was extracted from RFL12 or RELA transgenic mice brain (B), tongue (To), or testis (Te), and the level of LucF and LucR cistrons was analyzed by RT-PCR (as described in Materials and Methods). However, the bacterium-intrinsic cellular- transdifferentiation factor remained unknown. Cell transformation results in the loss of the density-dependent translational regulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms. Biol. Neurobiol Dis. The use of such an assay, based on dual highly sensitive reporters, allows rapid and concomitant quantitation of reporter activity. Indeed, cancer is associated with an increase in ribosome biogenesis and mutations in several ribosomal … They were homogenized in 200 μl of passive lysis buffer (Promega) using thurax and centrifuged for 20 min at 4,500 rpm at 4°C. FGF-2 or bFGF is a prototype member of the ever increasing FGF family that comprises, to date, 22 genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation (Nishimura et al. IRES-dependent regulation of FGF-2 mRNA translation in pathophysiological conditions in the mouse. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, RNA-Binding Proteins Tia-1 and Tiar Link the Phosphorylation of Eif-2α to the Assembly of Mammalian Stress Granules, Membrane-type 1 Matrix Metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) Enables Invasive Migration of Glioma Cells in Central Nervous System White Matter, Dynamics of the Genome during Early Xenopus laevis Development: Karyomeres As Independent Units of Replication. 1999). Cells are often called the "building blocks of life". Recently, we discovered that ribosome is involved in the regula-tion of cellular transdifferentiation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Skin fibroblast is a primary culture cell from human skin (Touriol et al. This corresponds to representative values of experiments repeated at least three times. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in animals. C2C12 (accession number for ECACC, 91031101) is a mouse muscle myoblast. Virology. 1991; Kim et al. Furthermore, the IRES of an avian retrovirus shows considerable activity in multipotent neural cells and in their glial and neuronal progeny (Derrington et al. 40 immortalized fibroblasts. 1991; 4 (3):189–196. 293 (accession number for ATCC, CRL-1573) is a human kidney epithelial cell, transformed with adenovirus 5. The two luciferase activities were measured in cell or tissue extracts and the IRES activity was determined by calculating the LucR/LucF ratios. -, Nature. The names of the different cell types (described in Materials and Methods) and the histograms values are indicated on the left. These data constitute a new step in our understanding of the physiological relevance of cellular mRNA IRESes. 4-fold FC is used as a cutoff, and proteins above this cutoff are marked. In contrast, except for the liver where neither LucR nor LucF activity was significantly detected (this could result from proteolytic activities known to be present in this organ), the EMCV IRES activity was high in most adult organs (Fig. Transgenic mice were obtained by injecting fragments containing either the CMV-LucR-EMCV IRES-LucF or the CMV-LucR-FGF2IRES-LucF sequences into one of the pronuclei of (C57Bl/6×CBA)2 fertilized eggs (Brinster et al. 1998). Mol Cancer. 1995; Arnaud et al. 13 Acute reductions of OGFOD1 in mammalian cells alter translational fidelity and increase the formation of mRNA-containing stress granules. FGF-2 IRES was weakly expressed in most organs, except the testis (up to 40.7) and the brain, where it presented exceptionally high activity (up to 454). The bicistronic vector approach that we describe in the present study allows us to enlighten the involvement of the FGF-2 IRES in vivo. The human 80S ribosome is the cellular nucleoprotein nanomachine in charge of protein synthesis that is profoundly affected during cancer transformation by oncogenic proteins and provides cancerous proliferating cells with proteins and therefore biomass. Biomolecules. In contrast, HMW FGF-2 expression in normal human cultured cells is translationally controlled by cell density and stress (Vagner et al. The FGF-2 mRNA leader sequence (nucleotides 1–539), including the IRES, was introduced between the LucR and LucF genes (Fig. ECV304 (accession number for ECACC, 92091712) is a spontaneously transformed human endothelial cell. Fibroblasts are an essential cell population for human skin architecture and function. The analysis of our transgenic mice showed that the human FGF-2 IRES is particularly active in the embryo proper at midgestation. In vitro incorporation of ribosomes into HDFs arrests cell proliferation and induces the formation of cell clusters, that differentiate into three germ layer derived cells upon induction by differentiation mediums. INTRODUCTION. A new 34-kilodalton isoform of human fibroblast growth factor 2 is cap dependently synthesized by using a non-AUG start codon and behaves as a survival factor. FGF-2 is a pleiotropic factor that induces the proliferation of most mesoderm- and neuroectoderm-derived cells (Slack and Isaacs 1994; Bikfalvi et al. Anal Biochem. Epub 2003 Jul 11. However, it was subjected to strong cell type–specific regulation. 1996). J Cell Biol 10 July 2000; 150 (1): 275–281. The location of the IRES just upstream from the CUG1 codon and the observation of higher HMW FGF-2 synthesis in nervous system cells, in particular after nerve injury, strongly suggest that IRES could have an essential role in the brain (Vagner et al. 1998). Borman A, Jackson RJ. Ribosome Incorporation Into Somatic Cells Promotes Lineage Transdifferentiation Towards Multipotency - PubMed Recently, we reported that bacterial incorporation induces cellular transdifferentiation of human fibroblasts. Abstract. In those transgenic animals, the pattern of expression of the different human isoforms was highly tissue-specific and corresponded to that of the endogenous FGF-2 isoforms. It is expected to reflect the activity of CMV sequences in the tissues or cells and, thus, to be proportional to the amount of bicistronic mRNA. Interestingly, among the different cell lines tested, the strongest IRES activity is observed in Saos2, a p53 −/− osteosarcoma cell line. The two plasmids pCRHL and pCREL have been described already (Huez et al. NIH Enzyme. Indeed, it is not only active in human cultured cells, but also in hamster, monkey, and mouse cells or tissues, suggesting that specific cellular trans-acting factors are able to recognize FGF-2 IRES independently of their origin. Confluent human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) monolayers are used routinely to study Toxoplasma infection and host-parasite interactions in vitro, whereas subconfluent cells are frequently used in studies of stress-induced translational control in other systems. Silencing the expression of the ribosome biogenesis factor NPM1 alters the U2AF1-S34F mutant cell proteome, down-regulating ribosome biogenesis and cell cycle progression factors. 1a). Their relative abundance varies according to cells and tissues (Coffin et al. Abbreviations used in this paper: CMV, cytomegalovirus; CNS, central nervous system; EMV, encephalomyocarditis virus; IRES, internal ribosome entry site; RT, reverse transcriptase. 3 (left), the activity of FGF-2 IRES was high in the E11 embryo, whereas it was low in the placenta of the two RFL transgenic lines. Ribosomes are a large and complex molecular machine that catalyzes the synthesis of proteins, referred to as translation.The ribosome selects aminoacylated transfer RNAs (tRNAs) based on the sequence of a protein-encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) and covalently links the amino acids into a polypeptide chain. 1992 Jun; 188 (2):685–696. We thank A. Mahfoudi, C. Orsini, and H. Prats, for helpful discussions, and D. Warwick for English proofreading. 1997; Meisinger and Grothe 1997). This process has important consequences on the fate of FGF-2: the CUG-initiated products are nuclear and their constitutive expression is able to induce cell immortalization, whereas the AUG-initiated product, mostly cytoplasmic, can generate cell transformation. Saos2 (accession number for ATCC, HTB-85) is a p53 −/− human osteosarcoma of epithelial origin. To check that the strong signal observed in the brain was due to IRES activity and not to any aberrant event, comparative reverse transcriptase (RT)–PCR was used to measure the relative levels of LucF and LucR cistrons. Analysis of the FGF-2 IRES activity in transiently transfected cells.  |  1998; Zhou et al. Amplification results (one third of the reactions) were analyzed on 2% agarose gels (Tris-borate/EDTA), followed by ethidium bromide staining. Interestingly, the murine and human FGF-2 isoforms undergo the same tissue-specific control in mice overexpressing a human FGF-2 transgene (Coffin et al. FGF-2 is also implicated in wound-healing processes (Bikfalvi et al. Search for other works by this author on: A new 34-kilodalton isoform of human fibroblast growth factor 2 is cap dependently synthesized by using a non-AUG start codon and behaves as a survival factor, Differential modulation of cell phenotype by different molecular weight forms of basic fibroblast growth factorpossible intracellular signaling by the high molecular weight forms, Biological roles of fibroblast growth factor-2, Factors affecting the efficiency of introducing foreign DNA into mice by microinjecting eggs, Alternative initiation of translation determines cytoplasmic or nuclear localization of basic fibroblast growth factor, Abnormal bone growth and selective translational regulation in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) transgenic mice, Potential oncogenic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor requires cooperation between CUG and AUG-initiated forms, Retroviral vectors for the expression of two genes in human multipotent neural precursors and their differentiated neuronal and glial progeny, Impaired cerebral cortex development and blood pressure regulation in FGF-2-deficient mice, Fibroblast growth factors in the nervous system, Human basic fibroblast growth factor gene encodes four polypeptidesthree initiate translation from non-AUG codons, The variability in activity of the universally expressed human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene 1 enhancer/promoter in transgenic mice, Cell transformation results in the loss of the density-dependent translational regulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms, The encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site allows efficient coexpression of two genes from a recombinant provirus in cultured cells and in embryos, Survival of chronically-injured neurons can be prolonged by treatment with neurotrophic factors, Expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 in hypoglossal motoneurons is stimulated by peripheral nerve injury, Two independent internal ribosome entry sites are involved in translation initiation of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA, Neovascularisation is associated with a switch to the export of bFGF in the multistep development of fibrosarcoma, Construction of a bifunctional mRNA in the mouse by using the internal ribosomal entry site of the encephalomyocarditis virus [published erratum appears in Mol. 1995) provide important information concerning the pattern of expression of the various FGF-2 isoforms and its conservation between human and mouse, they cannot be used to distinguish between cap-dependent and IRES-dependent translation. As p53 has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on FGF-2 translation (B. Galy, L. Créancier, C. Zanibellato, A.C. Prats, and H. Prats, unpublished results), this could indicate that the FGF-2 IRES is not only subjected to activation, but also to silencing by trans-acting factors. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The level of IRES activity varied according to the organ: it was hardly detectable in the liver; and low in limb bud and tail, regardless of the high activity of the CMV promoter in these tissues; and was high in the heart and brain. 1999). The lines expressing pCRFL (left) are RFLD (gray boxes) and RFL12 (black boxes).  |  [Activation of transcription of ribosome genes following human embryo fibroblast infection with cytomegalovirus in vitro]. IRESes, which allow cap-independent translation initiation, have been discovered in several cellular capped mRNAs during the last few years. 1995), suggesting conservation of the regulatory mechanisms between species. 1991; Bikfalvi et al. Our strategy was to express a bicistronic mRNA encoding two different luciferase reporter genes, the second being under the control of the human FGF-2 IRES. It is synthesized as a 155 amino acid polypeptide, whose mature form is a non-glycosylated 17-18 kDa protein.Fibroblast growth factor protein was first purified in 1975, but soon afterwards others using different conditions isolated acidic FGF, … USA.gov. Five FGF-2 isoforms are expressed by the FGF-2 mRNA, resulting from a process of alternative initiation of translation from five different initiation codons, including four noncanonical CUGs (Florkiewicz and Sommer 1989; Prats et al. 1998), was used here to test the activity of the FGF-2 IRES in different cell types. Therefore, transgenic mice were produced that contained the LucR-IRES-LucF DNA fragment (see Materials and Methods). Embryos from the transgenic mouse lines were recovered at 11 and 16 d postcoitum, and luciferase activities were measured in different organs (indicated on the left) as described in Materials and Methods. and differentiation. To determine the tissue specificity of the FGF-2 IRES in the absence of any bias because of cell transformation or cell culture conditions, we decided to study the expression of the LucR-FGF2-IRES-LucF construct in vivo. This IRES was active in most transiently transfected human and nonhuman cell types, with a higher activity in p53 −/− osteosarcoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. This study reveals a novel, to our knowledge, connection between the splice factor U2AF1 mutation responsible for myelodysplastic syndrome and ribosome biogenesis. 1G), all analyzed As the molecular factory for protein synthesis, the ribosome underlies the cell’s capacity to grow. HHS The in vivo specificity of this activity contrasted strikingly with the relatively ubiquitous expression of viral EMCV IRES. We have used single-cell RNA sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of more than 5,000 fibroblasts from a sun-protected area in healthy human donors. By introducing additional AUG codons into the RNA leader sequence, we localized an internal ribosome entry site to between nt 154 and 318 of the 5' untranslated region, just upstream of the first CUG. The lines expressing pCREL (right) are RELB (gray boxes) and RELA (black boxes). In summary, these data indicate that the FGF-2 IRES is subjected to stringent regulation in the adult, and that its activity is strongly upregulated in the brain. Interestingly, FGF-2 proteins were observed in tissues such as the brain where the FGF-2 mRNA could not be detected, even by RT-PCR (Coffin et al. The bands corresponding to amplification of LucR (465 nucleotide) or LucF (366 nucleotide) cDNAs are indicated by arrows. 1995). 1, pCREL) were also produced. For the in vivo analysis, E11 embryos, heart, limb bud, tail, brain, liver, and placenta of the E16 embryos, and tissue fragments of the adults were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C. 2019 Dec 9;8:e50094. In vitro, it stimulates endothelial cell growth and migration; in vivo, it promotes angiogenesis and is a major tumor angiogenic factor (Kandel et al. 1998). Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The high activity of FGF2 IRES observed in the brain strongly suggests that this cellular IRES is upregulated in this tissue. profiled the dynamics of the lysosomal proteome under different nutrient conditions (see the Perspective by Nofal and … This promoter was chosen because it had been shown previously to control the strong expression of reporter genes in tissue-cultured cells and the quasi-ubiquitous (although variable) expression of transgenes in transgenic mice (Furth et al. Cell. 14 different cell types were transiently transfected with pCRFL or pCRHL DNA. Human uS12 is a known substrate of the 2-oxoglutarate and Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1 (OGFOD1). in an amplification of ribosome occupancy at the start codon (Supplementary Fig. A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, produces the structural framework for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. This work was supported by grants from the Association pour la Recherche contre le Cancer, the Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, the Conseil Régional Midi-Pyrénées, the European Commission BIOTECH program (contrat 94199-181), and Rhone-Poulenc-Rorer (now Aventis). During periods of increased growth, cells also increase their ribosome content in a process called ribosome bio-genesis. This cap-independent translation required a sequence located between nucleotides (nt) 192 and 256 from the 5' end of the 318-nt-long 5' untranslated region. IRESes constitute powerful tools as they allow the expression of several genes from the same transcription unit. 1991). In contrast, IRES activity in the adult was low in most organs but remained very high in brain. Initiation of translation of human rhinovirus RNA: mapping the internal ribosome entry site. IRES activities are represented by histograms corresponding to the LucF/LucR activities (see Table). 1G). 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