[257], Especially since the 1950s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration. English fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming, but as England is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the English mindset more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside.[133]. There were a few armed invasions of hordes of migrating Celts. The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in almost all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books. [284], English folklore developed over many centuries. Elizabeth signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch and permitted Francis Drake to maraud in response to a Spanish embargo. This wedding also provoked hostility from France, already at war with Spain and now fearing being encircled by the Habsburgs. In 2009, new changes to local government were made whereby a number of new unitary authorities were created in areas which previously had a 'two-tier' system of counties and districts. This also includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain, Somerset Levels, South Coast Plain and The Fens. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream. Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story: Constable and Robinson, London. The number of executions during his 38-year reign numbered tens of thousands. At age 17, he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. ), "English history" redirects here. Compra el libro A DECLARATION OF THE AFFAIRS OF THE ENGLISH PEOPLE THAT FIRST INHABITED NEW ENGLAND de PHINEHAS PRATT- (9780342487530) en Casa del Libro. As a result, any failure to pledge loyalty to the victorious King William was severely dealt with. [71], The monarchy was restored in 1660, with King Charles II returning to London. It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter – the world's largest single defence project – for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system. About sharing. [385] In women's boxing, Nicola Adams became the world's first woman to win an Olympic boxing gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago. They married in 1421. Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly. [68] Under the auspices of King James VI and I the Authorised King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. Britain's trade deficit was reduced by 8% due to substantial cuts in energy imports. However, the unification of England was not a certainty. [18] Saxon mercenaries existed in Britain since before the late Roman period, but the main influx of population probably happened after the fifth century. Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cumbria. Edwin of Northumbria probably held dominance over much of Britain, though Bede's Northumbrian bias should be kept in mind. In return, the French agreed to recognize him as king and stop sheltering pretenders. England during this period had a centralised, organised and effective government, largely due to the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII. : 9781318822508: Books - Amazon.ca [169][170] High Speed 2, a new high-speed north–south railway line, projected in 2015 to cost £56 billion, but estimated in 2020 to be almost double that figure, is to start being built in 2020. 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