[41], Hopkins and Stearne, accompanied by the women who performed the pricking, were soon travelling over eastern England, claiming to be officially commissioned by Parliament to uncover and prosecute witches. According to historian Rossell Hope Robbins, Hopkins "acquired an evil reputation which in later days made his name synonymous with fingerman or informerp… The passion they shared resulted in pregnancy and eventually marriage. According to tradition, Hopkins used his recently acquired inheritance of a hundred marks[26] to establish himself as a gentleman and to buy the Thorn Inn in Mistley. Tweet. [51] If the suspected witch had no such visible marks invisible ones could be discovered by pricking, therefore "witch prickers" were employed, who pricked the accused with knives and special needles looking for such marks, normally after the suspect had been shaved of all body hair. While legend says he was tried as a witch using his own methods and executed, the mundane reality appears to be that tuberculosis carried him off. Matthew Hopkins was buried in Manningtree in Essex on 12 August 1647. [35][36] Both Hopkins and Stearne would have required some form of letters of safe conduct[37][38] to be able to travel throughout the counties. There is reason to believe that this was the noted Matthew Hopkins, Witch Finder General to the associated counties, who had frequently been mentioned by various writers. It also starred Ian Ogilvy, Hilary Dwyer and Rupert Davies. His activities mainly took place in East Anglia. Together with their female assistants, they were well paid for their work, and it has been suggested that this was a motivation for his actions. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. These trials resulted in 19 executions for witchcraft,[65][66] one man, Giles Corey, pressed to death for refusing to plead,[67] and 150 imprisonments. Photo credit James heightened the public anxiety around black magic and witches and as the fear rose in the decades to follow, there were more and more accusations between people. Updates? Portrait of Matthew Hopkins, “The Celebrated Witch-finder” from the 1837 edition of The Discovery of Witches. Little is known of Hopkins before 1644, but apparently he had been a lawyer, practicing in Essex. [34], The witch-hunts undertaken by Stearne and Hopkins mainly took place in East Anglia, in the counties of Suffolk, Essex, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire, with a few in the counties of Northamptonshire and Bedfordshire. Assistant Master and Professor of History, Selwyn College, University of Cambridge. The locals promptly hung Hopkins on the spot-which explains why there are no records of a trial. This was the time of the puritans and Hopkins was brought up in a household ruled by strict obedience to God’s Law and a life-long devotion to Christ. He was buried in the village churchyard of Mistley Heath in which is now an unmarked grave. Matthew Hopkins, (born, Wenham, Suffolk, Eng.—died Aug. 12, 1647), English witch-hunter during a witchcraft craze of the English Civil Wars. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). These practices were recommended in law books. As a result of Hopkins' allegations, 19 were hanged and four died in prison. "Select Cases of Conscience Touching Witches and Witchcraft", Death Warrant for Sarah Good, Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth How & Sarah Wilds, "The History of Witchcraft and Demonology", Animated/Audio Story of Hopkins and his demise, Diary of Witchfinder General trials published online, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Matthew_Hopkins&oldid=1002322181, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 21:53. Suspects were tied to a chair and thrown into water: all those who "swam" (floated) were considered to be witches. He was her knight in shinning armor, her "Lancelot". [27] From the way that he presented evidence in trials, Hopkins is commonly thought to have been trained as a lawyer, but there is scant evidence to suggest this was the case. A further test was to fling the accused bound into water, because a witch, having denied his or her baptism, would in turn be repelled by the water so that he or she would float and not sink into it. "Nothing can place the credulity of the English nation on the subject of witchcraft in a more striking point of view, than the history of Matthew Hopkins, who, in a pamphlet published in 1647 in his own vindication, assumes to himself the surname of the Witchfinder. [4][5][6] He is believed to have been responsible for the executions of over 100 alleged witches between the years 1644 and 1646. Hopkins was born around 1620 near a small village in Essex, England. Facts about Matthew Hopkins The facts about Matthew Hopkins have decribed above, do not you enjoy reading these amazing facts? Gaule hearing of this letter wrote his publication Select Cases of Conscience touching Witches and Witchcrafts; London, (1646)[57] – dedicated to Colonel Walton of the House of Commons[54] – and began a programme of Sunday sermons to suppress witch-hunting. [15][17] The family at one point held title "to lands and tenements in Framlingham 'at the castle'". For other uses, see, At this time the New Year did not occur until 25, The Discovery of Witches – In Answer to Several Queries, Lately Delivered to the Judges of Assize for the County of Norfolk; London; 1647, Jewett, Clarence F. The memorial history of Boston: including Suffolk County, Massachusetts. recent questions recent answers. [63] About eighty people throughout New England were accused of practising witchcraft during that period, of whom fifteen women and two men were executed. [68] In the words of historian Malcolm Gaskill, Matthew Hopkins "lives on as an anti-hero and bogeyman – utterly ethereal, endlessly malleable". 1 2 3. How old was Matthew Hopkins when he died? [42] Hopkins states[24] that "his fees were to maintain his company with three horses",[43][44] and that he took "twenty shillings a town". Matthew Hopkins died at his home in Manningtree, Essex, on 12 August 1647, probably of pleural tuberculosis. As late as 1895 a husband burnt his wife to death for being a witch. He died on May 15 after spending many weeks in hospital fighting Covid-19. Matthew Hopkins died in 1647. As described in the journal of Governor John Winthrop, the evidence assembled against Margaret Jones was gathered by the use of Hopkins' techniques of "searching" and "watching".[62]. [59] Hopkins was asked if methods of investigation did not make the finders themselves witches, and if with all his knowledge did he not also have a secret,[44][60] or had used "unlawful courses of torture". Superstition, it is clear, takes a long time to die. [50] This led to the legal abandonment of the test by the end of 1645.[50]. Hopkins even wrote a short pamphlet detailing his witch-hunting methods: ‘The Discovery of Witches’, which was published in 1647. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Histories which say that he was lynched or swum are likely to be wide of the mark as far as accuracy is concerned. [44] The records at Stowmarket show their costs to the town to have been £23 (£3,800 as of 2021) plus his travelling expenses.[45]. With the English Civil War under way, this trial was conducted not by justices of assize, but by justices of the peace presided over by the Earl of Warwick. This was 1967 when the film Witchfinder General about the evil Matthew Hopkins was being made and it was released in the spring and summer of the following year. [22] Hopkins' brother John became Minister of South Fambridge in 1645 but was removed from the post one year later for neglecting his work. Their daughter Lindsay was born in 1968. “Matthew Hopkins, son of Mr James Hopkins, Minister of Wenham, was buried at Mistley, August 12 th, 1647. [44][60][61], Hopkins' witch-hunting methods were outlined in his book The Discovery of Witches, which was published in 1647. In fact, the first accusations were made by Stearne and Hopkins was appointed as his assistant. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Matthew Hopkins, Worcestershire Acute Hospital Trust's chief executive, said: "So very sad. [54][55] Gaule had attended a woman from St Neots who was held in gaol charged with witchcraft until such time as Hopkins could attend. [60] By the time this court session resumed in 1647 Stearne and Hopkins had retired, Hopkins to Manningtree and Stearne to Bury St Edmunds. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Matthew-Hopkins, University of Regina - Luther College - The Historical Significance of Matthew Hopkins: England’s “Witchfinder General”, The Headgate Theatre - Matthew Hopkins - The Witchfinder General. He is the recipient of multiple accolades, including an Academy Award, three BAFTAs, two Emmys and the Cecil B. DeMille Award.In 1993, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the arts. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. 1630–1880. He thereupon became a “Witch Finder Generall,” going about Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Huntingdon getting villagers and townspeople to hire him and his two assistants (for a fee) to search out witches, force their confessions, and have them hanged by the authorities. recent questions recent answers. PCh I Glim $2,500.00 Gwy no17028 AnaRosenbohm; PCh … Matthew Hopkins died at his home in Manningtree, Essex, on 12 August 1647, probably of pleural tuberculosis. Matthew Hopkins (c. 1620 – 12 August 1647) was an English witch-hunter whose career flourished during the English Civil War. However, in others, he floated. [20] Although James Hopkins had died in 1634,[14] when the iconoclast William Dowsing, commissioned in 1643 by the Parliamentarian Earl of Manchester[21] "for the destruction of monuments of idolatry and superstition", visited the parish in 1645 he noted that "there was nothing to reform". [47] After the trial and execution the Moderate Intelligencer, a parliamentary paper published during the English Civil War, in an editorial of 4–11 September 1645 expressed unease with the affairs in Bury. [1] They extended throughout the area of strongest Puritan and Parliamentarian influences which formed the powerful and influential Eastern Association from 1644 to 1647, which was centred on Essex. Between 1644 and 1647 the hapless victims (including a few Anglican clergymen) numbered perhaps 230 or more. Consultant editor for the. They lived in Plymouth until about 1631, when they…. [71], What historian James Sharpe has characterised as a "pleasing legend" grew up around the circumstances of Hopkins' death, according to which he was subjected to his own swimming test and executed as a witch, but the parish registry at Mistley confirms his burial there. In the words of historian Malcolm Gaskill, Matthew Hopkins "lives on as an anti-hero and bogeyman – utterly ethereal, endlessly malleable". Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Fraden, Judith Bloom, Dennis Brindell Fraden. A legend that he was swum and hanged as a witch himself was false, even if it would have been a fitting end. Matthew Hopkins died at his home in Manningtree, Essex, on 12 August 1647, probably of pleural tuberculosis. [30] The work of Hopkins and John Stearne was not necessarily to prove any of the accused had committed acts of maleficium, but to prove that they had made a covenant with the Devil. Corrections? [25], In the early 1640s, Hopkins moved to Manningtree, Essex, a town on the River Stour, about 10 miles (16 km) from Wenham. [39], According to his book The Discovery of Witches,[24] Hopkins began his career as a witch-finder after he overheard women discussing their meetings with the Devil in March 1644 in Manningtree. How old was Matthew Hopkins when he died? Known that Matthew Hopkins died at his home in Manningtree, Essex, on August 12, 1647, caused of tuberculosis. He was buried a few hours after his death in the graveyard of the Church of St Mary at Mistley Heath. How the infamous, self-styled "Witch-finder General" – Matthew Hopkins took to his notorious business throughout East Anglia in the 1640's. His father, James Hopkins, was a clergyman of the Church of England. [32], Witches then became heretics to Christianity, which became the greatest of their crimes and sins. [33] Within continental and Roman Law witchcraft was crimen exceptum: a crime so foul that all normal legal procedures were superseded. John Alden and Priscilla Alden: Priscilla Mullins went to America with her parents and younger brother. [citation needed] Therefore, presuming the number executed as a result of investigations by Hopkins and his colleague John Stearne is at the lower end of the estimates,[8][9][10] their efforts accounted for about 20% of the total. [58], In Norfolk both Hopkins and Stearne were questioned by justices of the assizes, about the torturing and fees. Before the trial, a report was carried to the Parliament – "as if some busie men had made use of some ill Arts to extort such confession"[47] – that a special Commission of Oyer and Terminer was granted for the trial of these witches. [69] According to historian Rossell Hope Robbins,[70] Hopkins "acquired an evil reputation which in later days made his name synonymous with fingerman or informer paid by authorities to commit perjury". It has long been propounded that Hopkins was himself accused of being a witch, subjected to his own test of being bound and thrown into water and hanged after he was found to float. His exact date of death is not known, but it is reasonable to assume he died no more than four days before his burial. He and his associates were responsible for more people being hanged for witchcraft than in the previous 100 years,[2][3] and were solely responsible for the increase in witch trials during those years. Portrait of Matthew Hopkins, “The Celebrated Witch-finder” from the 1837 edition of ‘The Discovery of Witches’. According to historian Rossell Hope Robbins, Hopkins "acquired an evil reputation which in later days made his name synonymous with fingerman or informer… He was buried in the graveyard of the church of St Mary at Mistley heath. Millions had died in Europe. In the words of historian Malcolm Gaskill, Matthew Hopkins "lives on as an anti-hero and bogeyman – utterly ethereal, endlessly malleable". How did Matthew Hopkins die? Answer for question: Your name: Answers. The other three members of her family died during the terrible first winter of the Plymouth Colony. Hopkins and John Stearne took on the role of investigators, stating that they had seen familiars while watching her. It has long been propounded that Hopkins was himself accused of being a witch, subjected to his own test of being bound and thrown into water and hanged after he was found to float. Wiki User Answered . Another method was to force the accused to walk about all night, for only when at rest could a witch summon his or her familiars, who would terrify the accusers away. Probably in 1623 she and John were married. Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins CBE (born 31 December 1937) is a Welsh actor, composer, director and film producer. Omissions? He pricked any skin deformity on the accused that was thought to be an extra pap for suckling imps; such parts, if insensible, were believed to prove that the accused was a witch. [1], Hopkins' witch-finding career began in March 1644[a] and lasted until his retirement in 1647. Elizabeth Clarke (c. 1565–1645), alias Bedinfield, was the first woman persecuted by the Witchfinder General, Matthew Hopkins in 1645 in Essex, England.At 80 years old, she was accused of witchcraft by local tailor John Rivet. How did Matthew Hopkins die? His family was reportedly well off and respected by citizens. His own end however, is far from clear; some accounts say he drowned undergoing his own “swimming trial” after being accused of witchcraft himself. This was a mark that all witches or sorcerers were thought to possess that was said to be dead to all feeling and would not bleed – although it was sometimes a mole, birthmark or an extra nipple or breast. Matthew Hopkins died on August 11th 1647 from suspected Tuberculosis. Ticknor and Company. Occasionally, long after Matthew Hopkins and others of his appalling ilk had become nightmare folk-memories, awful things happened. Hopkins was warned against the use of "swimming" without receiving the victim's permission first. [48] Although torture was nominally unlawful in England, Hopkins often used techniques such as sleep deprivation to extract confessions from his victims. Matthew Blaisdel was a modern-day cowboy, ruggedly handsome, sincere, and polite. Methods of investigating witchcraft heavily drew inspiration from the Daemonologie of King James, which was directly cited in Hopkins' The Discovery of Witches. He fell by accident, in his native county of Suffolk, into contact with one or two reputed witches, and, being a man of an observing turn and an ingenious … During this period, excepting Middlesex and chartered towns, no records show any person charged of witchcraft being sentenced to death other than by the judges of the assizes. It was directed by Michael Reeves who died … At the age of 23, Heath made her feature acting debut in Michael Reeves' creepy historical horror flick Witchfinder General, which fictionalized in rather brutal fashion the witch-hunting exploits of 17th-century Englishman Matthew Hopkins, played by horror icon Vincent Price. The early life of Matthew Hopkins is almost a complete mystery up until his witch hunting began. Matthew Hopkins (1620–1647) began his witch-finding career began in 1645 with assistant John Sterne, claiming to have the backing of Parliament (which he did not) and is believed to have been responsible for the deaths of 300 women over the course of two years. He was buried a few hours after his death in the graveyard of the Church of St Mary at Mistley Heath. [28], Following the Lancaster Witch Trials (1612–1634), William Harvey, physician to King Charles I of England, had been ordered to examine the four women accused,[29] and from this there came a requirement to have material proof of being a witch. But by 1647 it was all over and Hopkins was dead, aged just 27. [7], It has been estimated that all of the English witch trials between the early 15th and late 18th centuries resulted in fewer than 500 executions for witchcraft. Photo by Wellcome images CC BY 4.0 Not surprisingly, most were con artists who used sleight of hand to expose witchery. [62] During the year following the publication of Hopkins' book, trials and executions for witchcraft began in the New England colonies with the hanging of Alse Young of Windsor, Connecticut on May 26, 1647, followed by the conviction of Margaret Jones. Answer for question: Your name: Answers. [31] Prior to this point, any malicious acts on the part of witches were treated identically to those of other criminals, until it was seen that, according to the then-current beliefs about the structure of witchcraft, they owed their powers to a deliberate act of their choosing. Asked by Wiki User. In March 1644 he alleged his first discovery of witches—six of them, in Manningtree, who he claimed tried to kill him. In fact, Hopkins died after an illness, likely tuberculosis . Hopkins life was as short as his career and despite modern legend that he was captured and hanged for witchcraft himself, the reality of his death was much simpler. Answer this question. 133–137. Twenty-three women were accused of witchcraft and were tried at Chelmsford in 1645. Jones' execution was the first in a witch-hunt that lasted in New England from 1648 until 1663. [49] He would also cut the arm of the accused with a blunt knife, and if she did not bleed, she was said to be a witch. Execution for the very crime he had persecuted so many others for may have been a fitting end for Matthew Hopkins. Born in 1864 and died in 1929 Chicopee, Massachusetts Matthew A Hopkins In August of 1647, at the age of just 26 or 27, Matthew Hopkins keeled over in Manningtree and died. [11], Little is known of Matthew Hopkins before 1644, and there are no surviving contemporary documents concerning him or his family. Hopkins and his assistants also looked for the Devil's mark. The Pendle trial was before Hopkins was born, but he was directly responsible for finding all 18 people in Bury guilty of witchcraft due to his detection methods. Upon hearing that the woman had been interviewed, Hopkins wrote a letter[54][56] to a contact asking whether he would be given a "good welcome". In fact, Hopkins died after an illness, likely tuberculosis. It is likely that Hopkins and his colleague, John Stearne, were responsible for most of these. Few legal wins so far as Trump team hunts for proof of fraud What is the code for turtle knock on literacy planet; WIN #9 $10,000.00 ON THE GREAT 8 OUTDOOR EVENT; WIN #8 $10,000.00 OIN THE GREAT 8 OUTDOOR EVENT #16595; A backpack weighed 28 pounds. While they were all convicted and hanged almost immediately, the trial did cast down on the validity of Matthew Hopkins the Witchfinder General. At 19, he drove to school from a ranch in a pickup truck, and met 16-year-old Claudia Barrows. TRIBUTES: Carlos Sia died after battling the coronavirus in hospital. [12] He was born in Great Wenham, Suffolk[13][14][15] and was the fourth son[13] of six children. [16] His father, James Hopkins, was a Puritan clergyman and vicar of St John's of Great Wenham, in Suffolk. 1881 Pgs. Free e-mail watchdog. [18][19] His father was popular with his parishioners, one of whom in 1619 left money to purchase Bibles for his then three children James, John and Thomas. Because the Devil was not going to "confess", it was necessary to gain a confession from the human involved. Hopkins and his company ran into opposition very soon after the start of their work,[40] but one of his main antagonists was John Gaule, vicar of Great Staughton in Huntingdonshire. [63] Some of Hopkins' methods were once again employed during the Salem Witch Trials,[64] which occurred primarily in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692–93. Matthew Hopkins died at his home in Manningtree on the 12th August 1647 of pleural tuberculosis and was buried in the graveyard of the Church of St Mary at Mistley Heath. Your first assessment in this topic will focus on whether or not Matthew Hopkins deserved to die. He died on the 27th August, 1647, in his home in manningtree, Essex to Tuberculosis, aged at most 27 years old. 2011-11-29 16:12:30 2011-11-29 16:12:30. [15], "Witchfinder General" redirects here. [23] Hopkins states in his book The Discovery of Witches (1647)[24] that he "never travelled far ... to gain his experience". Lesson Four: Assessment – Did Matthew Hopkins deserve to die? Answer. Many suspects died of Jail fever in the cells of Colchester Castle The interrogations took place in the dark cells of Colchester Castle, where many women died as a result of their incarceration before ever being brought to court. [14], Thus Matthew Hopkins could not have been born before 1619, and could not have been older than 28 when he died, but he may have been as young as 25. He claimed to hold the office of Witchfinder General, although that title was never bestowed by Parliament. Many of his methods of inquisition were not far removed from actual torture. When asked this type of question it is important for historians to be able to give both sides of the argument in order to present a fair answer. Another of his methods was the swimming test, based on the idea that as witches had renounced their baptism, water would reject them. Cabell deliberately eschews context – historical, social and legal – because he wants to concentrate on Matthew Hopkins, whom he believes to have been uniquely evil. According to some versions, Hopkins sank and drowned. Hopkins, too, was fading – he died a young man in 1647, most probably from tuberculosis. Emboldened by his success, Hopkins hired four assistants and began hunting for witches all over Suffolk, Essex, and East Anglia. Adam said there is a legend that he was killed by his own methods by angry townsfolk who turned against him, but it … [52][53] It was believed that the witch's familiar, an animal such as a cat or dog, would drink the witch's blood from the mark, as a baby drinks milk from the nipple. Hopkins is said to have been in it for the money alone, whereas his colleague John Stearne was at least motivated by genuine religious fervour. Of the suspects Matthew Hopkins managed to convict, 100 witches were from the eastern counties. Top Answer. [46] Parliament was well aware of Hopkins and his team's activities, as shown by the concerned reports of the Bury St Edmunds witch trials of 1645. The cost to the local community of Hopkins and his company were such that, in 1645, a special local tax rate had to be levied in Ipswich. He was buried a few hours after his death in the graveyard of the Church of St Mary at Mistley Heath. Carlos Sia, 62 Mr Sia worked at Worcestershire Royal Hospital, as did his wife Cindy and daughter, Clair. [40] Four died in prison and nineteen were convicted and hanged. In 1620, Matthew Hopkins, the son of a local minister, was born at Great Wenham, Suffolk. In the 14 months of their crusade Hopkins and Stearne sent to the gallows more accused people than all the other witch-hunters in England of the previous 160 years. By citizens ) is a Welsh actor, composer, director and film producer questions... The greatest of their crimes and sins for may have been a lawyer practicing... Redirects here knight in shinning armor, her `` Lancelot '' ‘ the of!, was born at Great Wenham, Suffolk the role of investigators, stating that they had familiars!, John Stearne, were responsible for most of these, 19 were hanged and four died in 1647 actor. 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